Medieval Sind and Punjab, 400-1500

Before the coming of Islam in 711/12, Sind and Punjab were dominated by the local dynasties. The rulers of these dynasties minted interesting small silver coins, first properly studied and described in Fishman/Todd's "The Silver Damma" book. These are fascinating coins, showing the elements of the native, Persian and Hunnic cultures. The area of Sindh and Punjab was conquered by the Muslims around 712 AD - the Abbasid Caliphate controlled the region directly until the middle of the 9th century. After that the region fragmented into a number of independent or semi-independent Sultanates.

The unique Caliphal and later coins of the region minted after the Arab conquest were only recently studied and published - they remain a fascinating and unique field of numismatics.