Fatimid Multan, 960-1010

South-Western Punjab was taken over by a radical Qarmatian sect around 960 AD. They minted coins naming the Fatimid Caliphs of Cairo. The Qarmatian state was crushed by the Ghaznavids around 1010 AD who annexed the area to the Ghaznavid Empire.

These unique Fatimid Caliphal coins from Punjab have only recently been studied and published (Fishman/Todd "The Silver Damma") - they remain a fascinating and unique field of numismatics.