Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 AD

The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE) was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty. The Umayyads continued the Muslim conquests, incorporating the Transoxiana, Sindh, the Maghreb and the Iberian Peninsula (Al-Andalus) into the Muslim world. The dynasty was eventually overthrown by a rebellion led by the Abbasids in 750. Survivors of the dynasty established themselves in Cordoba which, in the form of an emirate and then a caliphate, became a world centre of science, medicine, philosophy and invention, ushering in the period of the Golden Age of Islam.