Muslim Sind and Punjab (712-1500 AD)

In 711/712 Sind and Punjab were conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate. These were the most remote new provinces of the Caliphate - because of the distance, they quickly broken away from the Caliphate, and the Caliph's power over the provinces remained only nominal. The local governors and rulers of various dynasties minted fascinating little silver, copper and gold coins.