Caliphal governors and Amirs of Multan, 712-960 AD

The area of Sindh and Punjab was conquered by the Muslims around 712 AD - the Abbasid Caliphate controlled the region directly until the middle of the 9th century. After that the region fragmented into a number of independent or semi-independent Sultanates. 

The unique Caliphal and later coins of the region minted after the Arab conquest were only recently studied and published - they remain a fascinating and unique field of numismatics.