Giray tamgha, Zarb fi Boghche Saray / Arabic legends: Khan Mengli bin al-Hajj Selim Giray. 16mm, 0.81 grams. Boghche Saray mint. Retowski #1 (Mengli II, 1st reign).
The Khanate was founded when certain clans of the Golden Horde Empire ceased their nomadic life in the Desht-i Kipchak (Kypchak Steppes of today''s Ukraine and South Russia) and decided to make their yurt (homeland), which at that time had been an ulus (district) of the Golden Horde since 1239, with its capital at Qarm. The local separatists invited a Genghisid contender for the Golden Horde throne, Haci Giray, to be their khan. Haci Giray accepted their invitation and traveled from exile in Lithuania. He warred for independence against the Horde from 1420 to 1441, in the end achieving success. But Haci Giray then had to fight off internal rivals before he could ascend the throne of the khanate in 1449, after which he moved its capital to Qirq Yer (today part of Bahçeseray). The khanate included the n peninsula (except the south and southwest coast and ports, controlled by the Republic of Genoa) and the steppes of modern southern Ukraine and Russia.