64-ratti AR tanka of Mahmud III (1537-1553), 1549, Gujarat Sultanate, India (G-414)

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Legends on both sides: Al-wathiq billah al-mannan nasir al-dunya wa'l din abu'l fath / Mahmud Shah bin Larif Shah al-sultan within a scalloped circle, the date is in fields, the mint is in the margin. Dated to 957 AH = 1549 AD. 21mm, 7.5 grams. "The coins of the Indian Sultanates" G-414

Struck to the lighter 64-ratti standard.

In 1297-8 Ala-ud-din, Sultan of Delhi, destroyed Anhilwara and incorporated Gujarat into the Delhi Sultanate. After Timur's sacking of Delhi at the end of the 14th century weakened the Sultanate, Gujarat's Muslim governor Zafar Khan Muzaffar asserted his independence, and his son, Sultan Ahmd Shah (ruled 1411-1442), established Ahmdabad as the capital. Cambay eclipsed Bharuch as Gujarat's most important trade port. The Sultanate of Gujarat remained independent until 1576, when the Mughal emperor Akbar conquered it and annexed it to the Mughal empire. It remained a province of the Mughal empire until the Marathas conquered it in the 18th century.



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