Silver yamini dirham of Yamin ud-Daula Mahmud (998-1030 AD) naming Caliph al-Qadir, type 1, Ghaznavid Empire

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Obverse: Arabic inscription in 5 lines: Adil / kalima in 3 lines / Yamini.

Reverse: Arabic incsription in 5 lines: lillah / Muhammad rasul Allah/ al-Qadir billah/ Yamin al-Dawla/ Mahmud.

19mm, 3.04 grams. Ghazna mint. Album 1609, type I.

The Ghaznavid Empire was one of the greatest medieval Islamic Empires. The Ghaznavid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186. The dynasty was founded by Sabuktigin upon his succession to rule of the region of Ghazna after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin, who was a breakaway ex-general of the Samanid Empire from Balkh, north of the Hindu Kush in Greater Khorasan. .