MONETA REVALI, Cross on shield / MAGISTR LIVONIE, large cross. 13.5mmx12mm, 0.32 grams. Reval mint. D. Fyodorov "Baltic Coins" #-.
The Livonian Order was an autonomous Livonian branch of the Teutonic Order and a member of the Livonian Confederation from 1435 to 1561. After being defeated by Samogitians in the 1236 Battle of Schaulen (Saule), the remnants of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword were incorporated into the Teutonic Knights and became known as the Livonian Order in 1237.Between 1237 and 1290, the Livonian Order conquered all of Courland, Livonia and Semigallia, but the Order's attempts to invade the neighboring Novgorod Republic were unsuccessful and its army was eventually defeated in the Battle of Lake Peipus (1242), and in the Battle of Rakvere (1268). In 1346, the Order bought the Duchy of Estonia from King Valdemar IV of Denmark. The order controlled most of the Baltics until 1561, then the order was converted into Lutheranism and the Order's lands were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden.