Square silver 1/4th tanka of Mahmud Shah II (1510-1531), Malwa

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Islamic legends on both sides. Dated to 918 AH = 1512 AD. Made of highquality silver, one of the first rupee issues. Large and thick, 13mm indiameter, 2.1 grams. "The coins of the Indian Sultanates" M-158.Thesacking of Delhi by the Mongol conqueror Timur in the early fifteenthcentury caused the breakup of that sultanate into smaller states, andin 1401 Dilawar Khan, previously Malwa's governor under the rule ofDelhi, declared himself sultan of Malwa. He established a capital atMandu, high in the Vindhya Range, overlooking the Narmada River valley.His son and successor Hoshang Shah (1405-1435) embellished Mandu.Hoshang Shah's son Ghazni Khan ruled for only a year, and was suceededby Sultan Mahmud Khalji (1436-1469), first of the Khalji sultans ofMalwa, who expanded the state to include portions of Gujarat,Rajasthan, and the Deccan. The Muslim sultans invited Rajputs to settlein the country. In the early 1500's the sultan sought the aid of thesultans of Gujarat to counter the growing power of the Rajputs, whilethe Rajputs sought the aid of the Sesodia Rajput kings of Mewar.Gujarat stormed Mandu in 1518 and 1531, and shortly thereafter theMalwa sultanate collapsed. The Mughal emperor Akbarcaptured Malwa in1562, and made it a province of his empire. Mandu was abandoned by theseventeenth century.