RRR billon jital of Jalal al-Din Mangubarni Khwarezmshah, 1220/1231, Kurraman mint

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Horseman left, holding standard, Sri Jalaladina in Nagari around / Bull standing left, mint name on the bull, very crude and not read with full certainty. 13mm, 3.30 grams. Mint of Kurraman (?). Tye 316.

Very rare type.

Jalal al-Din Mingburnu, also known as Jalal al-Din Khwarazmshah, was the last Khwarazmshah of the Anushtegin line, ruling parts of Central Asia and northwestern India from 1220 to 1231. He was the son and successor of Ala ad-Din Muhammad II Khwarezmshah.

Jalal al-Din only ruled his ancestral kingdom in Khwarizm briefly, until he was forced to leave for the southwestern part of the realm. The following year, the Khwarizmian capital of Gurganj was captured and devastated by the Mongols. Meanwhile, at the city of Ghazni, Jalal al-Din rallied a substantial army which consisted of Khwarizmians, Turks, and Ghurids, subsequently defeating the pursuing forces of the Mongol leader Genghis Khan at the battle of Parwan. Jalal al-Din was, however, forced to withdraw to northwestern India by the Mongol forces. At the Indus River, however, the Mongols caught up with him and slaughtered his forces, along with thousands of refugees, at the Battle of the Indus. He escaped and sought asylum in the Sultanate of Delhi but Iltutmish denied this to him. The cities of Herat, Ghazni and Merv were destroyed and massacred by the Mongols, for his resistance or rebelliousness. He fought the Mongols and Seljuks until 1231, appearing all over Central Asia and North India, conquering Georgia, though he was never able to create a stable state for himself to rule.



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