Silver dirham of Yamin ud-Daula Mahmud (998-1030 AD) without Mahmud's name but naming Caliph al-Qadir, unlisted variety, Ghaznavid Empire

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Obverse: Arabic inscription in 5 lines: Adil / kalima in 2 lines / rabi' (for the month).

Reverse: incsription in 5 lines: lillah / Muhammad rasul Allah / al-Qadir Billah/ Yamin al-dawla / m.

19mm, 2.72 grams.

Fascinating type without the name of the issuer, though "mim" in the last line on the reverse probably stands for "Mahmud". The 4th line on the reverse is corrupt, with some missing and extra letters. Fascinating coin.

The Ghaznavid Empire was one of the greatest medieval Islamic Empires. The Ghaznavid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186. The dynasty was founded by Sabuktigin upon his succession to rule of the region of Ghazna after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin, who was a breakaway ex-general of the Samanid Empire from Balkh, north of the Hindu Kush in Greater Khorasan. .