Uncertain Golden Horde pulo with a "castle" countermark from the Genoese n city of Caffa. 20mm, 1.71 grams. Uncertain pulo from . For countermark: Retowski "Genoese countermark #5".
The Genoese minted only a few copper puls in Caffa, preferring to countermark the Golden Horde puls instead. Rare!
The appearance of Italian traders on the Black Sea dates back to the beginning of XIII century. Genoese colonization of the Black Sea coast started in 60-70s of the XIII century. Caffa became the very first and then the most important Genoese colony, founded at the location of ancient Theodosia. It was ruled by consuls. At that time Caffa was located in the middle of the trade routes between the East and Western Europe, which led to its rapid growth and prosperity. The existence of Caffa was interrupted in 1308 by the Golden Horde Khan Toqtu. Only when a new Khan Uzbek (1312-1342) was crowned had the Genoese reappeared on the Black Sea coast. The period after the reestablishment of the Caffa colony up until the end of the XIV century had become the heyday of the city. By the middle of the XIV century Caffa had become a powerful fortress, and during the XIV-XV centuries it was known as the Queen of the Black Sea. The consul of Caffa was also the head of all Genoese Black Sea possessions. The colony was finally destroyed by the Ottoman Empire in 1475.