Posthumous retrograde damma of Ahmed (950/1000 CE), Habbarids, Sindh (F/T26)

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Corrupt and retrograde legend (only partially seen) La ilah illa/ allah wahdahu/ la sharik lahu (“There is no god but Allah alone, no partner to him”) / Mohamed/ rasul/ Allah al-Amir/ Ahmed (“Mohamed is the messenger of God, Amir Ahmed”). 8mm, 0.43 grams. "The coins of the Indian Sultanates"# -; Fishman/Todd "The Silver Damma" #HS26. SKU EH42

These coins show a very crude (but usually correct) legend retrograde, and always bear the name of Ahmed. The coins are small and light (averaging eight mm and 0.35 grams) and are very debased (analysis of eight coins showed silver content ranging from 2 to 12 percent), and were struck with large dies so only a small portion of the design could be imprinted on each coin. The entire legend is shown in "The Silver Damma", page 156, it was reconstructed from fragmentary inscriptions on a large number coins. These coins are never found with the normal issues of Ahmed and seem to date to the later period, probably the first half of the 11th century CE. The type is clearly unofficial, but is very self-consistent and it seems that all the coins came from a single large issue judging by the significant number of known dies.

Sind was the first part of India to come under muslim rule. The earliest Amirs issued small silver coins (1/5 dirhams) - all carrying the name of the Amir, but without any dates, so they are very difficult to date exactly, especially since the Amirs of Sind are virtually unknown from other sources.