Silver dirham of Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 AD), Muhammadiya mint, 191 AH/807 AD, Abbasid Caliphate

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Arabic inscriptions: "There is no God except Allah alone. He has no partner" in the central field, "In the name of Allah this dirhem was struck at Muhamadiya in the year one hundred ninety one" in the margins / "Allah is one, Allah is eternal. He begets not neither is he begotten" in the central field, "Mohamed is the prophet of Allah whom he sent with guidance and the religion of truth that he may make it victorious over every other religion. Minted in 191 AH = 807 AD, mint of Medinat al-Salam. 23mm, 2.88 grams. A219.2

Harun al-Rashid  (17 March 763 or February 766 — 24 March 809) was the fifth Abbasid Caliph. Harun ruled from 786 to 809, and his time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. Islamic art and Islamic music also flourished significantly during his reign. Since Harun was intellectually, politically, and militarily resourceful, his life and his court have been the subject of many tales. Some are claimed to be factual, but most are believed to be fictitious. An example of what is factual, is the story of the clock that was among various presents that Harun had sent to Charlemagne. The presents were carried by the returning Frankish mission that came to offer Harun friendship in 799. Charlemagne and his retinue deemed the clock to be a conjuration for the sounds it emanated and the tricks it displayed every time an hour ticked. Among what is known to be fictional is The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, which contains many stories that are fantasized by Harun's magnificent court and even Harun al-Rashid himself.