812 AD - Superb silver dirham of Spanish Caliph al-Hakam I (796-822 AD), al-Andalus mint, Umayyads of Spain - Very rare type with star/crescents (Vives -)

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Arabic inscriptions: "There is no God except Allah alone. He has no partner" in the central field, "In the name of Allah this dirhem was struck at al-Andalus in the year seven and ninety and one hundred" in the margins, all within a quadruple border with five annulets, star with 5 curved rays / "Allah is one, Allah is eternal. He begets not neither is he begotten" in the central field, "Mohamed is the prophet if Allah whom he sent with guidance and the religion of truth that he may make it victorious over every other religion" around, crescents below and above the inscription. Minted in 197 AH = 812 AD, mint of al-Andalus (Cordoba in Spain). 27mm, 2.74 grams. Mitchiner WOI 317ff; "Monedas Andalusies" #-; Vives -.Very rare with this type of a star, unlisted in the Vives or "Monedas Andalusies").The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711718) began as an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Berbers, inhabitants of Northwest Africa recently converted to Islam, invaded the Christian Visigothic Kingdom located on the Iberian peninsula (Hispania). Under the authority of the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I of Damascus, and commanded by Tariq ibn Ziyad, they disembarked at Gibraltar on April 30, 711, and campaigned their way northward. Tariq's forces were reinforced the next year by those of his superior, the Emir Musa ibn Nusair.