Geometric decorations with rosettes, large rosette in the middle, countermark / Geometric decorations with rosettes, partially seen arabic legend in the middle ""the great Queen, glory of the world and faith, Tamar, daughter of Giorgi, champion of the Messiah, may God increase her victories"" (in a slightly abbreviated form). 14mm, 3.25 grams. Tbilisi mint. Catalogue of Georgian Numismatics, p.246; Bennet #165; for countermark see Pakhomov "Coins of Georgia" p.112. SKU T1780-52361
The countermark is letter "d" (don) with a dot in it (rare variety, most countermarks do not show the dot). It was in use sometimes between 1187 and 1210. The exact meaning is unknown - it might stand for "Dang" (the denomination) or it might be the initial of King David Soslan who ruled in 1207-1208.
Tamar the Great (c. 1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as a regent (1178-1184) and later as the Queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age. A member of the Bagrationi dynasty, her position as the first woman to rule Georgia in her own right was emphasized by the title mepe ("king"), afforded to Tamar in the medieval Georgian sources