Quality billon tanka of Nasir al-Din Mahmud Shah (1440-1456 AD), 857 AH / 1453 AD, Sultanate of Jaunpur, India (J-12)

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Inscriptions on both sides: mahmud shah bin ibrahim shah sultani khulidat mamlakatahu / al-khalifa amir al-mu minin khulidat khilafatahu. 19mm, 9.65 grams. Dated to 857 AH =1453 AD. White colour, decent quality billon. "The Coins of the Indian Sultanates" J12; Rajgor 2713.

Mahmud Shah was the son of Ibrahim Shah. He conducted numerous wars with mixed success - he was successful to conquer Chunar, but failed to capture Kalpi. He also conducted campaigns against Bengal and Orissa. In 1452, he invaded Delhi but was defeated by Bahlul Lodi. Later, he made another attempt to conquer Delhi and marched into Etawah. Finally, he agreed to a treaty which accepted the right of Bahlul Lodi over Shamsabad. But when Bahlul tried to take possession of Shamsabad, he was opposed by the forces of Jaunpur. At this juncture, Mahmud Shah died and he was succeeded by his son Bhikhan, who assumed the title of Muhammad Shah.

The City of Jaunpur was founded by Firuz Tughluq in the memory of Muhammad Tughluq who was also known as Juna Khan. Khwaja Jahan (Malik Sarvar), overseer of the area for the Delhi Sultans, declared himself independent in the confusion caused by Timur's invasion. He was succeeded by his adopted son who took the title of Mubarak Shah. Ibrahim Shah, the next king, was a great patron of learning. During his time, the Sharqi style architecture was developed, and the Atala Masjid was completed in 1408. The last ruler, Husain Shah, was defeated by Bahlol Lodi. At the time of Sikandar Lodi, Jaunpur was permanently annexed to the Delhi Sultanate.