Home : Islamic coins : Mongol Ghengiz Khan and his descendants : Golden Horde and other Juchid coins (1252-1481) : Silver dirham of the famous Toqtamysh Khan (782-801 AH/1380-1398 AD), Qrim mint in Crimea, Juchid Mongols of the Golden Horde (Sagdeyeva #390)

Silver dirham of the famous Toqtamysh Khan (782-801 AH/1380-1398 AD), Qrim mint in Crimea, Juchid Mongols of the Golden Horde (Sagdeyeva #390)

Silver dirham of the famous Toqtamysh Khan (782-801 AH/1380-1398 AD), Qrim mint in Crimea, Juchid Mongols of the Golden Horde (Sagdeyeva #390)

Al-Sultan al-adil Tokhtamish Khan ("The Just Sultan Tokhtamish Khan") within a scallopped cirle / Zarb fi balad (Qrim), no date ("Minted in the city (of Qrim)") within a complex double multifoil. 15mm, 1.21 grams. Mint of Qrim in Crimea. Sagdeeva (2005) #390.

Tokhtamysh was the prominent khan of the White Horde, who briefly unified the White Horde and Blue Horde subdivisions of the Golden Horde into a single state. He was a descendant of Genghis Khan's eldest grandson, Orda Khan or his brother Tuqa-Timur. Tokhtamysh appears in history in 1376, trying to overthrow his uncle Urus Khan, ruler of the White Horde, and fleeing to the great Timur. Tokhtamysh dreamed of emulating his ancestors and made plans to reunite the Ulus Jochi. In 1380, he invaded the Blue Horde by fording across the Volga. The ruler of the Blue Horde, Mamai, was killed shortly after the Battle of Kulikovo, making Tokhtamysh's victory over the horde all the easier. In just six years, Tokhtamysh had reunified the Mongol lands from Crimea to Lake Balkhash. Believing he could emulate the successes of Genghis Khan himself, in 1385 Tokhtamysh, with an army of 50,000 (or five tumens), invaded Persia and took Tabriz. In 1387 he suddenly invaded Transoxiana, the heart of Timur's realm. This proved to be his downfall, as Timur attacked the Golden Horde and defeated Tokhtamysh at the Terek. Timur sacked the capital, Sarai Berke, vassalized the Golden Horde, and placed a puppet ruler, Koirichak, on the throne of Orda's Ulus and appointed Temur Qutlugh khan of the Horde. Tokhtamysh escaped to the Ukrainian steppes and asked for help from the Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania. In the great Battle of the Vorskla River (1399) the combined forces of Tokhtamysh and Vytautas were defeated by two of Timur's generals, khan Temur Qutlugh and emir (murza, visir) Edigu. The defeated Tokhtamysh was killed in Tyumen by Edigu's men in 1406.

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