Home : Islamic coins : Islamic Central Asia (before ca.1370 AD) : Scarce billon jital of Jalal ad-din Mangubarni (1220-1224), last ruler of Khwarezm (Tye-318)

Scarce billon jital of Jalal ad-din Mangubarni (1220-1224), last ruler of Khwarezm (Tye-318)

Scarce billon jital of Jalal ad-din Mangubarni (1220-1224), last ruler of Khwarezm (Tye-318)

Horseman left, holding standard, crude Sri Hamira in the left field / Bull standing left, Nagari inscriptions Sri Jalaladina. 15mm, 3.56 grams. Nandana (?) mint. "The Coins of the Indian Sultanates" #SS7; Tye 318.

Jalal ad-Din was the last ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire. Following the defeat of his father, Ala ad-Din Muhammad II by Genghis Khan in 1220, Jelal ad-Din Manguberdi came to power but he rejected the title shah that his father had assumed and called himself simply sultan. Due to the Mongol invasion and sacking of Samarkand, he was forced to flee to India with an escort of only five thousand men. At the river Indus however, the Mongols caught up with him and killed his forces and thousands of refugees at the Battle of Indus. He escaped and sought asylum in the Sultanate of Delhi. Iltumish however denied this to him in deference to the relationship with the Abassid caliphs. Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu spent three years in exile in India before returning to Persia. He gathered an army and re-established a kingdom. He never consolidated his power however, and he spent the rest of his days struggling against Mongols, pretenders to the throne and the Seljuk Turks of Rum. He lost his power over Persia in a battle against the Mongols in the Alborz Mountains and fled to the Caucasus, to capture Azerbaijan in 1225, setting up their capital at Tabriz. In 1226 he attacked Georgia and sacked Tbilisi, destroying all the churches. Jalal had a brief victory over the Seljuks and captured the town Akhlat from Ayyubids. However, he was later defeated by Sultan Kayqubad I at Erzincan on the Upper Euphrates at the Battle of Yassiçemen (Yassi Chemen) in 1230, from where he escaped to Diyarbakir while the Mongols captured Azerbaijan in the ensuing confusion. He was murdered in 1231 in Diyarbakir by a Kurdish assassin hired by the Seljuks.

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